The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study
The effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs on their postprandial responses after a standard meal.
Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), peptide YY(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP) and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved.
Both hypocaloric diet regimens decreased fasting leptin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and reduced the postprandial response of GIP similarly. Eating only breakfast and lunch increased fasting plasma ghrelin more than the same caloric restriction split into six meals. The changes in fasting ghrelin correlated negatively with the decrease in body weight. These results suggest that for type 2 diabetic patients on a hypocaloric diet, eating larger breakfast and lunch may be more efficient and therefore beneficial than six smaller meals during the day.